Confrontation In Indonesia
Confrontation with Indonesia (1963-1966) - 'The Borneo Banyan'
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation during 1962–1966 was Indonesia’s political and armed opposition to the creation of Malaysia. It is also known by its Indonesian or Malay name of Konfrontasi. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now West Malaysia) with the crown colony British protectorate of Sabah and Sarawak (collectively known as British Borneo, now East Malaysia) in September 1963.
The confrontation was an undeclared war with most of the action in the border area between Indonesia and East Malaysia on the island of Borneo (known as Kalimantan in Indonesia). However, Sabah and Sarawak were ethnically, religiously and politically diverse and there was some local opposition to joining Malaysia that Indonesia attempted to exploit, with very little success.
In 1963 when the new nation of Malaysia was proclaimed, Malaysia had absorbed the states of Malaya, Singapore (later to withdraw), Sarawak and Sabah (North Borneo) in a new Federation. Unfortunately Indonesia opposed the new nation.The Indonesian President (Dr. Sukarno) embarked on a policy of 'confrontation' and later threatened to 'crush' Malaysia.
Australia made it clear that if Malaysia were subjected to armed invasion or subversive activity supported from outside, then Australian military assistance would be added to that of the Malaysian and British. RAN warships in the Strategic Reserve were available for patrol and escort ops.
President Sukarno was not deterred and mounted numerous incursions of troops into Malaysian Borneo as well as sea landings on the Malayan coast. During 1964 Australian Naval Operations were sharply increased to counter the threat of sea-borne infiltration.
The coastal minesweepers Hawk, Curlew, Snipe and Gull, were committed and patrolled off the coasts of Borneo, Malaya and Singapore. Later in 1964 Teal and Ibis took part in these ops. HMAS Sydney, now converted to her new role as a fast troop transport sailed for Malaysian ports carrying army personnel, ammunition, AA guns and stores. As well destroyers, Duchess, Vampire and Vendetta together with the frigate Derwent joined in 'confrontation' patrol duty.
Type 12 Frigate - HMAS DERWENT
Indonesia persisted with hostile acts which included dropping paratroops into Malaysia and the landing by sea of infiltrators who clashed with Commonwealth forces.
'Indonesian attacks', the Prime Minister told parliament, 'may create a real risk of war...it is tremendously important that Indonesia should not become communist.' On 10th November 1964 compulsory National Service was reintroduced for the army and the RAN permanent strength was to be increased from 12,569 to 15,893 over the next three years.
HMAS Teal whilst operating as part of the Singapore Straits patrol on 13th December 1964 was fired upon with automatic weapons by a vessel which then headed for Indonesian waters. Teal returned fire with three Bren guns and two Owen guns and arrested the boat. C.O., Lieutenant Murray was later decorated with the DSC, continued its 'confrontation' and the British organized substantial naval forces to defend Malaysia. RAN destroyers, frigates and minesweepers maintained their patrols. When Indonesian forces crossed the border into eastern Sebatik Island near Tawau, Sabah, on 28th June 1965, Yarra was called upon to carry out bombardments designed to harass the withdrawal of the infiltrators. Bombardments of the border area were again carried out on the 5th and 10th July.
Ton Class Minesweeper - HMAS TEAL
On the night of the 30th September 1965 a coup attempt, in which Indonesian communists became involved, occurred in Indonesia. Six senior Generals were killed. The coup failed and was followed by widespread violence and bloodshed. It proved a turning point for 'confrontation', which declined thereafter and on 13th August 1966 a formal agreement concluded between Indonesia and Malaysia bringing the conflict to an end.